[26] Nasik has registered maximum visitors to 75 million. [110], Some pilgrims walk considerable distances and arrive barefoot, as a part of their religious tradition. [54] Manuscripts related to Hindu ascetics and warrior-monks – akharas fighting the Islamic Sultanates and Mughal Empire era – mention bathing pilgrimage and a large periodic assembly of Hindus at religious festivals associated with bathing, gift-giving, commerce and organisation. after every 144 years. Historically the Kumbh Melas were also major commercial events, initiation of new recruits to the akharas, prayers and community singing, spiritual discussions, education and a spectacle. [69], The Kumbh melas of the past, albeit with different regional names, attracted large attendance and have been religiously significant to the Hindus for centuries. The exact years – particularly for the Kumbh Melas at Ujjain and Nashik – have been a subject of dispute in the 20th-century. [42] It is also mentioned in the Pali canons of Buddhism, such as in section 1.7 of Majjhima Nikaya, wherein the Buddha states that bathing in Payaga (Skt: Prayaga) cannot wash away cruel and evil deeds, rather the virtuous one should be pure in heart and fair in action. Once the British had regained control of the region, the Prayagwals were persecuted by the colonial officials, some convicted and hanged, while others for whom the government did not have proof enough to convict were persecuted. The festival had roadside merchants of food grains, confectioners, clothes, toys and other items. Der Milchozean wurde von Devas (Götter) und Asuras (Dämonen) am Anfang der Zeit mit Hilfe der Schlange Vasuki als Seil und dem Götterberg Meru gequirlt, um den Nektar der Unsterblichkeit herauszufiltern. Since Jupiter's orbit completes in 11.86 years, a calendar year adjustment appears in approximately 8 cycles. [55][70] The British officials, states Dubey, raised the tax to amount greater than average monthly income and the attendance fell drastically. Die Kumbh Mela wird schon seit Langem gefeiert; die erste schriftliche Erwähnung findet sie jedoch erst in den Aufzeichnungen des chinesischen Reisenden Xuanzang im 7. [21] Four of these morphed under the Kumbh Mela brand during the East India Company rule (British colonial era) when it sought to control the war-prone monks and the lucrative tax and trade revenues at these Hindu pilgrimage festivals. KUMBH : Sarvjan - Sahbhagita ka Vishalatam Amritparva with 1 Disc (Hindi, Paperback, Ramanand)Pilgrims Publishings, India, This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 15:43. [124], In November 2018, Islamic terrorist organisation ISIS threatened to attack the Hindu pilgrims who visit the Kumbh at Prayagrajin 2019. Seven have belonged to the Shaivism tradition, three to Vaishnavism, two to Udasis (founded by Guru Nanak's son) and one to Nirmalas. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 23. Kumbh Mela 2019 at Prayagraj : photo documentary of the one of the world's largest religious gatherings. For the 2019 Ardh Kumbh at Prayagraj, the preparations include a ₹42,000 million (US$590 million or €540 million) temporary city over 2,500 hectares with 122,000 temporary toilets and range of accommodation from simple dormitory tents to 5-star tents, 800 special trains by the Indian Railway, artificially intelligent video surveillance and analytics by IBM, disease surveillance, river transport management by Inland Waterways Authority of India, and an app to help the visitors. He also mentions the Hindu bathing rituals at the junction of the rivers. [72] According to an 1858 account of the Haridwar Kumbh Mela by the British civil servant Robert Montgomery Martin, the visitors at the fair included people from a number of races and clime. [21], The 16th-century Ramcharitmanas of Tulsidas mentions an annual Mela in Prayag, as does a Muslim historian's Ain-i-Akbari (c. 1590 CE). [14][15] Other places where the Magha-Mela or Makar-Mela bathing pilgrimage and fairs have been called Kumbh Mela include Kurukshetra,[16][17] Sonipat,[18] and Panauti (Nepal). When aided, the rituals may begin with mundan (shaving of head), prayers with offerings such as flowers, sindur (vermilion), milk or coconut, along with the recitation of hymns with shradha (prayers in the honour of one's ancestors). Kumbh Mela has been theme for many documentaries, including Kings with Straw Mats (1998) directed by Ira Cohen, Kumbh Mela: The Greatest Show on Earth (2001) directed by Graham Day,[113] Short Cut to Nirvana: Kumbh Mela (2004) directed by Nick Day and produced by "Maurizio Benazzo",[114] Kumbh Mela: Songs of the River (2004) by Nadeem Uddin,[115] Invocation, Kumbh Mela (2008), Kumbh Mela 2013: Living with Mahatiagi (2013) by the Ukrainian Religious Studies Project Ahamot,[116] and Kumbh Mela: Walking with the Nagas (2011), Amrit: Nectar of Immortality (2012) directed by Jonas Scheu and Philipp Eyer. "[citation needed], Young siblings getting separated at the Kumbh Mela were once a recurring theme in Hindi movies. [71], Baptist missionary John Chamberlain, who visited the 1824 Ardh Kumbh Mela at Haridwar, stated that a large number of visitors came there for trade. The festival is marked by a ritual dip in the waters, but it is also a celebration of community commerce with numerous fairs, education, religious discourses by saints, mass feedings of monks or the poor, and entertainment spectacle. Many pilgrims practice partial (one meal a day) or full vrata (day-long fasting), some abstain from elaborate meals. [3][4] The seekers believe that bathing in these rivers is a means to prāyaścitta (atonement, penance) for past mistakes,[5] and that it cleanses them of their sins. Februar 2020 um 17:21 Uhr bearbeitet. Die Naga Babas sind traditionell Kriegermönche, die zur Verteidigung des Glaubens, unter anderem gegenüber dem Islam, halfen. Therefore, approximately once a century, the Kumbh mela returns to a site after 11 years. [87], On 14 April 1998, 10 million pilgrims attended the Kumb Mela at Haridwar on the busiest single day, according to the Himalayan Academy editors. Jupiter in Aries, Sun and Moon in Capricorn; Jupiter in Leo and Sun in Aries; or Jupiter, Sun, and Moon in Libra on Kartik Amavasya, 3 Sikh akharas: Bara Panchayati Udasins, Chota Panchayati Udasins, and Nirmal, The Purna Kumbh Mela (sometimes just called. "[44] In Anushasana parva, after the war, the epic elaborates this bathing pilgrimage as "geographical tirtha" that must be combined with manasa-tirtha (tirtha of the heart) whereby one lives by values such as truth, charity, self-control, patience and others. Of these, four sites are broadly recognised as the Kumbh Melas: Prayagraj, Haridwar, Trimbak-Nashik and Ujjain. Kama Maclean states that the early British records do not mention the name "Kumbh Mela" or the 12-year cycle for the Prayag fair. Harvard University, South Asia Institute (2015). Between 1892 and 1908, in an era of major famines, cholera and plague epidemics in British India, the pilgrimage dropped to between 300,000 and 400,000. The phrases such as "Maha Kumbh" and "Ardh Kumbh" in the context of the ancient religious pilgrimage festivals with a different name at Prayag, Nasik and Ujjain are evidently of a more modern era.